Wichlacz, Julia; Höller, Daniel; Hoffmann, Jörg

Landmark Heuristics for Lifted Classical Planning

De Raedt, Lud;  (Ed.): Proceedings of the Thirty-First International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-22), Vienna, 23-29 July 2022, International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence Organization, pp. 4665-4671, 2022.

While state-of-the-art planning systems need a grounded (propositional) task representation, the input model is provided “lifted”, specifying predicates and action schemas with variables over a finite object universe. The size of the grounded model is exponential in predicate/action-schema arity, limiting applicability to cases where it is small enough. Recent work has taken up this challenge, devising an effective lifted forward search planner as basis for lifted heuristic search, as well as a variety of lifted heuristic functions based on the delete relaxation. Here we add a novel family of lifted heuristic functions, based on landmarks. We design two methods for landmark extraction in the lifted setting. The resulting heuristics exhibit performance advantages over previous heuristics in several benchmark domains. Especially the combination with lifted delete relaxation heuristics to a LAMA-style planner yields good results, beating the previous state of the art in lifted planning.