Publications

Donatelli, Lucia; Schmidt, Theresa; Biswas, Debanjali; Köhn, Arne; Zhai, Fangzhou; Koller, Alexander

Aligning Actions Across Recipe Graphs Inproceedings

Proceedings of EMNLP, pp. 6930–6942, 2021.

Recipe texts are an idiosyncratic form of instructional language that pose unique challenges for automatic understanding. One challenge is that a cooking step in one recipe can be explained in another recipe in different words, at a different level of abstraction, or not at all. Previous work has annotated correspondences between recipe instructions at the sentence level, often glossing over important correspondences between cooking steps across recipes. We present a novel and fully-parsed English recipe corpus, ARA (Aligned Recipe Actions), which annotates correspondences between individual actions across similar recipes with the goal of capturing information implicit for accurate recipe understanding. We represent this information in the form of recipe graphs, and we train a neural model for predicting correspondences on ARA. We find that substantial gains in accuracy can be obtained by taking fine-grained structural information about the recipes into account.

@inproceedings{donatelli21:align,
title = {Aligning Actions Across Recipe Graphs},
author = {Lucia Donatelli and Theresa Schmidt and Debanjali Biswas and Arne K{\"o}hn and Fangzhou Zhai and Alexander Koller},
url = {https://aclanthology.org/2021.emnlp-main.554},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Proceedings of EMNLP},
pages = {6930–6942},
abstract = {Recipe texts are an idiosyncratic form of instructional language that pose unique challenges for automatic understanding. One challenge is that a cooking step in one recipe can be explained in another recipe in different words, at a different level of abstraction, or not at all. Previous work has annotated correspondences between recipe instructions at the sentence level, often glossing over important correspondences between cooking steps across recipes. We present a novel and fully-parsed English recipe corpus, ARA (Aligned Recipe Actions), which annotates correspondences between individual actions across similar recipes with the goal of capturing information implicit for accurate recipe understanding. We represent this information in the form of recipe graphs, and we train a neural model for predicting correspondences on ARA. We find that substantial gains in accuracy can be obtained by taking fine-grained structural information about the recipes into account.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Projects:   A3 A7

Höller, Daniel; Behnke, Gregor; Bercher, Pascal; Biundo, Susanne

The PANDA Framework for Hierarchical Planning Journal Article

Künstliche Intelligenz, 2021.

During the last years, much progress has been made in hierarchical planning towards domain-independent systems that
come with sophisticated techniques to solve planning problems instead of relying on advice in the input model. Several of
these novel methods have been integrated into the PANDA framework, which is a software system to reason about hierarchical planning tasks. Besides solvers for planning problems based on plan space search, progression search, and translation to propositional logic, it also includes techniques for related problems like plan repair, plan and goal recognition, or plan verifcation. These various techniques share a common infrastructure, like e.g. a standard input language or components for grounding and reachability analysis. This article gives an overview over the PANDA framework, introduces the basic techniques from a high level perspective, and surveys the literature describing the diverse components in detail.

@article{hoeller-etal-21-PANDA,
title = {The PANDA Framework for Hierarchical Planning},
author = {Daniel H{\"o}ller and Gregor Behnke and Pascal Bercher and Susanne Biundo},
url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13218-020-00699-y},
doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s13218-020-00699-y},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
journal = {K{\"u}nstliche Intelligenz},
abstract = {During the last years, much progress has been made in hierarchical planning towards domain-independent systems that come with sophisticated techniques to solve planning problems instead of relying on advice in the input model. Several of these novel methods have been integrated into the PANDA framework, which is a software system to reason about hierarchical planning tasks. Besides solvers for planning problems based on plan space search, progression search, and translation to propositional logic, it also includes techniques for related problems like plan repair, plan and goal recognition, or plan verifcation. These various techniques share a common infrastructure, like e.g. a standard input language or components for grounding and reachability analysis. This article gives an overview over the PANDA framework, introduces the basic techniques from a high level perspective, and surveys the literature describing the diverse components in detail.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {article}
}

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Project:   A7

Höller, Daniel; Bercher, Pascal

Landmark Generation in HTN Planning Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), AAAI Press, 2021.

@inproceedings{hoeller-bercher-21-LMs,
title = {Landmark Generation in HTN Planning},
author = {Daniel H{\"o}ller and Pascal Bercher},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)},
publisher = {AAAI Press},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Höller, Daniel; Behnke, Gregor

Loop Detection in the PANDA Planning System Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS), 31, AAAI Press, pp. 168-173, 2021.

The International Planning Competition (IPC) in 2020 wasthe first one for a long time to host tracks on Hierarchical
Task Network (HTN) planning. HYPERTENSION, the winner of the tack on totally-ordered problems, comes with an interesting technique: it stores parts of the decomposition path in the state to mark expanded tasks and forces its depth first
search to leave recursive structures in the hierarchy. This can be seen as a form of loop detection (LD) – a technique that is
not very common in HTN planning. This might be due to the spirit of encoding enough advice in the model to find plans
(so that loop detection is simply not necessary), or because it becomes a computationally hard task in the general (i.e.
partially-ordered) setting. We integrated several approximate and exact techniques for LD into the progression search of the
HTN planner PANDA. We test our techniques on the benchmark set of the IPC 2020. Both in the partial ordered and total
ordered track, PANDA with LD performs better than the respective winner of the competition.

@inproceedings{hoeller-behnke-21-LD,
title = {Loop Detection in the PANDA Planning System},
author = {Daniel H{\"o}ller and Gregor Behnke},
url = {https://ojs.aaai.org/index.php/ICAPS/article/view/15959},
year = {2021},
date = {2021-07-21},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS)},
pages = {168-173},
publisher = {AAAI Press},
abstract = {The International Planning Competition (IPC) in 2020 wasthe first one for a long time to host tracks on Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) planning. HYPERTENSION, the winner of the tack on totally-ordered problems, comes with an interesting technique: it stores parts of the decomposition path in the state to mark expanded tasks and forces its depth first search to leave recursive structures in the hierarchy. This can be seen as a form of loop detection (LD) – a technique that is not very common in HTN planning. This might be due to the spirit of encoding enough advice in the model to find plans (so that loop detection is simply not necessary), or because it becomes a computationally hard task in the general (i.e. partially-ordered) setting. We integrated several approximate and exact techniques for LD into the progression search of the HTN planner PANDA. We test our techniques on the benchmark set of the IPC 2020. Both in the partial ordered and total ordered track, PANDA with LD performs better than the respective winner of the competition.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Höller, Daniel

Translating Totally Ordered HTN Planning Problems to Classical Planning Problems Using Regular Approximation of Context-Free Languages Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS), 31, AAAI Press, pp. 159-167, 2021.

There have been several approaches to use techniques from classical planning in HTN planning. While a direct translation is in general not possible due to the different expressiveness, there have been translations of bounded HTN problems and approaches to use classical heuristics in HTN search procedures. In this paper, we introduce a different approach. We exploit methods from the field of Computational Linguistics introduced to approximate Context-Free Languages by Finite Automata. We use them to approximate the decomposition structure of Totally Ordered (TO) HTN planning problems by classical problems. The resulting problem can then be solved using standard classical planning systems. A subset of TOHTN problems can be translated exactly, i.e., without changing the set of solutions. For problems where an approximation is necessary, we use an overapproximation, i.e., the set of solutions to the classical problem is a superset of that of the HTN problem. We then use plan verification to check whether a solution is valid and thus obtain a sound and complete overall approach. The resulting system outperforms the state of the art on the IPC 2020 benchmark set in terms of coverage.

@inproceedings{hoeller-21-toad,
title = {Translating Totally Ordered HTN Planning Problems to Classical Planning Problems Using Regular Approximation of Context-Free Languages},
author = {Daniel H{\"o}ller},
url = {https://ojs.aaai.org/index.php/ICAPS/article/view/15958},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS)},
pages = {159-167},
publisher = {AAAI Press},
abstract = {There have been several approaches to use techniques from classical planning in HTN planning. While a direct translation is in general not possible due to the different expressiveness, there have been translations of bounded HTN problems and approaches to use classical heuristics in HTN search procedures. In this paper, we introduce a different approach. We exploit methods from the field of Computational Linguistics introduced to approximate Context-Free Languages by Finite Automata. We use them to approximate the decomposition structure of Totally Ordered (TO) HTN planning problems by classical problems. The resulting problem can then be solved using standard classical planning systems. A subset of TOHTN problems can be translated exactly, i.e., without changing the set of solutions. For problems where an approximation is necessary, we use an overapproximation, i.e., the set of solutions to the classical problem is a superset of that of the HTN problem. We then use plan verification to check whether a solution is valid and thus obtain a sound and complete overall approach. The resulting system outperforms the state of the art on the IPC 2020 benchmark set in terms of coverage.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Lauer, Pascal; Torralba, Álvaro; Fiser, Daniel; Höller, Daniel; Wichlacz, Julia; Hoffmann, Jörg

Polynomial-Time in PDDL Input Size: Making the Delete Relaxation Feasible for Lifted Planning Inproceedings Forthcoming

Proceedings of the 30th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), IJCAI organization, 2021.

@inproceedings{lauer-21,
title = {Polynomial-Time in PDDL Input Size: Making the Delete Relaxation Feasible for Lifted Planning},
author = {Pascal Lauer and {\'A}lvaro Torralba and Daniel Fiser and Daniel H{\"o}ller and Julia Wichlacz and J{\"o}rg Hoffmann},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 30th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI)},
publisher = {IJCAI organization},
pubstate = {forthcoming},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Wichlacz, Julia; Höller, Daniel; Hoffmann, Jörg

Landmark Heuristics for Lifted Planning – Extended Abstract Inproceedings Forthcoming

Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Combinatorial Search (SoCS), AAAI Press, 2021.

@inproceedings{wichlacz-21,
title = {Landmark Heuristics for Lifted Planning – Extended Abstract},
author = {Julia Wichlacz and Daniel H{\"o}ller and J{\"o}rg Hoffmann},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Combinatorial Search (SoCS)},
publisher = {AAAI Press},
pubstate = {forthcoming},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Ferber, Patrick; Hoffmann, Jörg; Helmert, Malte

Neural network heuristics for classical planning: A study of hyperparameter space Inproceedings

24th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI’20), 2020.

Neural networks (NN) have been shown to be powerful state-value predictors in several complex games. Can similar successes be achieved in classical planning? Towards a systematic exploration of that question, we contribute a study of hyperparameter space in the most canonical setup: input = state, feed-forward NN, supervised learning, generalization only over initial state. We investigate a broad range of hyperparameters pertaining to NN design and training. We evaluate these techniques through their use as heuristic functions in Fast Downward. The results on IPC benchmarks show that highly competitive heuristics can be learned, yielding substantially smaller search spaces than standard techniques on some domains. But the heuristic functions are costly to evaluate, and the range of domains where useful heuristics are learned is limited. Our study provides the basis for further research improving on current weaknesses.

@inproceedings{Ferber2020network,
title = {Neural network heuristics for classical planning: A study of hyperparameter space},
author = {Patrick Ferber and J{\"o}rg Hoffmann and Malte Helmert},
url = {https://ecai2020.eu/papers/433_paper.pdf},
year = {2020},
date = {2020},
booktitle = {24th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI’20)},
abstract = {Neural networks (NN) have been shown to be powerful state-value predictors in several complex games. Can similar successes be achieved in classical planning? Towards a systematic exploration of that question, we contribute a study of hyperparameter space in the most canonical setup: input = state, feed-forward NN, supervised learning, generalization only over initial state. We investigate a broad range of hyperparameters pertaining to NN design and training. We evaluate these techniques through their use as heuristic functions in Fast Downward. The results on IPC benchmarks show that highly competitive heuristics can be learned, yielding substantially smaller search spaces than standard techniques on some domains. But the heuristic functions are costly to evaluate, and the range of domains where useful heuristics are learned is limited. Our study provides the basis for further research improving on current weaknesses.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Wichlacz, Julia; Höller, Daniel; Torralba, Álvaro; Hoffmann, Jörg

Applying Monte-Carlo Tree Search in HTN Planning Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Combinatorial Search (SoCS), AAAI Press, pp. 82-90, Vienna, Austria, 2020.

Search methods are useful in hierarchical task network (HTN) planning to make performance less dependent on the domain knowledge provided, and to minimize plan costs. Here we investigate Monte-Carlo tree search (MCTS) as a new algorithmic alternative in HTN planning. We implement combinations of MCTS with heuristic search in Panda.

We furthermore investigate MCTS in JSHOP, to address lifted (non-grounded) planning, leveraging the fact that, in contrast to other search methods, MCTS does not require a grounded task representation. Our new methods yield coverage performance on par with the state of the art, but in addition can effectively minimize plan cost over time.

@inproceedings{Wichlacz20MCTSSOCS,
title = {Applying Monte-Carlo Tree Search in HTN Planning},
author = {Julia Wichlacz and Daniel H{\"o}ller and {\'A}lvaro Torralba and J{\"o}rg Hoffmann},
url = {https://aaai.org/ocs/index.php/SOCS/SOCS20/paper/viewFile/18521/17560},
year = {2020},
date = {2020},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Combinatorial Search (SoCS)},
pages = {82-90},
publisher = {AAAI Press},
address = {Vienna, Austria},
abstract = {Search methods are useful in hierarchical task network (HTN) planning to make performance less dependent on the domain knowledge provided, and to minimize plan costs. Here we investigate Monte-Carlo tree search (MCTS) as a new algorithmic alternative in HTN planning. We implement combinations of MCTS with heuristic search in Panda. We furthermore investigate MCTS in JSHOP, to address lifted (non-grounded) planning, leveraging the fact that, in contrast to other search methods, MCTS does not require a grounded task representation. Our new methods yield coverage performance on par with the state of the art, but in addition can effectively minimize plan cost over time.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Höller, Daniel; Bercher, Pascal; Behnke, Gregor

Delete- and Ordering-Relaxation Heuristics for HTN Planning Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 29th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), IJCAI organization, pp. 4076-4083, Yokohama, Japan, 2020.

In HTN planning, the hierarchy has a wide impact on solutions. First, there is (usually) no state-based goal given, the objective is given via the hierarchy. Second, it enforces actions to be in a plan. Third, planners are not allowed to add actions apart from those introduced via decomposition, i.e. via the hierarchy. However, no heuristic considers the interplay of hierarchy and actions in the plan exactly (without relaxation) because this makes heuristic calculation NP-hard even under delete relaxation. We introduce the problem class of delete- and ordering-free HTN planning as basis for novel HTN heuristics and show that its plan existence problem is still NP-complete. We then introduce heuristics based on the new class using an integer programming model to solve it.

@inproceedings{Hoeller2020IJCAI,
title = {Delete- and Ordering-Relaxation Heuristics for HTN Planning},
author = {Daniel H{\"o}ller and Pascal Bercher and Gregor Behnke},
doi = {https://doi.org/10.24963/ijcai.2020/564},
year = {2020},
date = {2020},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 29th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI)},
pages = {4076-4083},
publisher = {IJCAI organization},
address = {Yokohama, Japan},
abstract = {In HTN planning, the hierarchy has a wide impact on solutions. First, there is (usually) no state-based goal given, the objective is given via the hierarchy. Second, it enforces actions to be in a plan. Third, planners are not allowed to add actions apart from those introduced via decomposition, i.e. via the hierarchy. However, no heuristic considers the interplay of hierarchy and actions in the plan exactly (without relaxation) because this makes heuristic calculation NP-hard even under delete relaxation. We introduce the problem class of delete- and ordering-free HTN planning as basis for novel HTN heuristics and show that its plan existence problem is still NP-complete. We then introduce heuristics based on the new class using an integer programming model to solve it.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Köhn, Arne; Wichlacz, Julia; Torralba, Álvaro; Höller, Daniel; Hoffmann, Jörg; Koller, Alexander

Generating Instructions at Different Levels of Abstraction Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, International Committee on Computational Linguistics, pp. 2802-2813, Barcelona, Spain (Online), 2020.

When generating technical instructions, it is often convenient to describe complex objects in the world at different levels of abstraction. A novice user might need an object explained piece by piece, while for an expert, talking about the complex object (e.g. a wall or railing) directly may be more succinct and efficient. We show how to generate building instructions at different levels of abstraction in Minecraft. We introduce the use of hierarchical planning to this end, a method from AI planning which can capture the structure of complex objects neatly. A crowdsourcing evaluation shows that the choice of abstraction level matters to users, and that an abstraction strategy which balances low-level and high-level object descriptions compares favorably to ones which don’t.

@inproceedings{kohn-etal-2020-generating,
title = {Generating Instructions at Different Levels of Abstraction},
author = {Arne K{\"o}hn and Julia Wichlacz and {\'A}lvaro Torralba and Daniel H{\"o}ller and J{\"o}rg Hoffmann and Alexander Koller},
doi = {https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/2020.coling-main.252},
year = {2020},
date = {2020},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics},
pages = {2802-2813},
publisher = {International Committee on Computational Linguistics},
address = {Barcelona, Spain (Online)},
abstract = {When generating technical instructions, it is often convenient to describe complex objects in the world at different levels of abstraction. A novice user might need an object explained piece by piece, while for an expert, talking about the complex object (e.g. a wall or railing) directly may be more succinct and efficient. We show how to generate building instructions at different levels of abstraction in Minecraft. We introduce the use of hierarchical planning to this end, a method from AI planning which can capture the structure of complex objects neatly. A crowdsourcing evaluation shows that the choice of abstraction level matters to users, and that an abstraction strategy which balances low-level and high-level object descriptions compares favorably to ones which don't.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Köhn, Arne; Wichlacz, Julia; Schäfer, Christine; Torralba, Álvaro; Hoffmann, Jörg; Koller, Alexander

MC-Saar-Instruct: a Platform for Minecraft Instruction Giving Agents Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 21th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue, Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 53-56, 1st virtual meeting, 2020.

We present a comprehensive platform to run human-computer experiments where an agent instructs a human in Minecraft, a 3D blocksworld environment. This platform enables comparisons between different agents by matching users to agents. It performs extensive logging and takes care of all boilerplate, allowing to easily incorporate new agents to evaluate them. Our environment is prepared to evaluate any kind of instruction giving system, recording the interaction and all actions of the user. We provide example architects, a Wizard-of-Oz architect and set-up scripts to automatically download, build and start the platform.

@inproceedings{Hoeller2020IJCAIb,
title = {MC-Saar-Instruct: a Platform for Minecraft Instruction Giving Agents},
author = {Arne K{\"o}hn and Julia Wichlacz and Christine Sch{\"a}fer and {\'A}lvaro Torralba and J{\"o}rg Hoffmann and Alexander Koller},
url = {https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/2020.sigdial-1.7},
year = {2020},
date = {2020},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 21th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue},
pages = {53-56},
publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
address = {1st virtual meeting},
abstract = {We present a comprehensive platform to run human-computer experiments where an agent instructs a human in Minecraft, a 3D blocksworld environment. This platform enables comparisons between different agents by matching users to agents. It performs extensive logging and takes care of all boilerplate, allowing to easily incorporate new agents to evaluate them. Our environment is prepared to evaluate any kind of instruction giving system, recording the interaction and all actions of the user. We provide example architects, a Wizard-of-Oz architect and set-up scripts to automatically download, build and start the platform.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Höller, Daniel; Bercher, Pascal; Behnke, Gregor; Biundo, Susanne

HTN Plan Repair via Model Transformation Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 43rd German Conference on Artificial Intelligence (KI), Springer, pp. 88-101, 2020.

To make planning feasible, planning models abstract from many details of the modeled system. When executing plans in the actual system, the model might be inaccurate in a critical point, and plan execution may fail. There are two options to handle this case: the previous solution can be modified to address the failure (plan repair), or the planning process can be re-started from the new situation (re-planning). In HTN planning, discarding the plan and generating a new one from the novel situation is not easily possible, because the HTN solution criteria make it necessary to take already executed actions into account. Therefore all approaches to repair plans in the literature are based on specialized algorithms. In this paper, we discuss the problem in detail and introduce a novel approach that makes it possible to use unchanged, off-the-shelf HTN planning systems to repair broken HTN plans. That way, no specialized solvers are needed.

@inproceedings{Hoeller2020KI,
title = {HTN Plan Repair via Model Transformation},
author = {Daniel H{\"o}ller and Pascal Bercher and Gregor Behnke and Susanne Biundo},
url = {https://www.springerprofessional.de/htn-plan-repair-via-model-transformation/18359180},
year = {2020},
date = {2020},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 43rd German Conference on Artificial Intelligence (KI)},
pages = {88-101},
publisher = {Springer},
abstract = {To make planning feasible, planning models abstract from many details of the modeled system. When executing plans in the actual system, the model might be inaccurate in a critical point, and plan execution may fail. There are two options to handle this case: the previous solution can be modified to address the failure (plan repair), or the planning process can be re-started from the new situation (re-planning). In HTN planning, discarding the plan and generating a new one from the novel situation is not easily possible, because the HTN solution criteria make it necessary to take already executed actions into account. Therefore all approaches to repair plans in the literature are based on specialized algorithms. In this paper, we discuss the problem in detail and introduce a novel approach that makes it possible to use unchanged, off-the-shelf HTN planning systems to repair broken HTN plans. That way, no specialized solvers are needed.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Wichlacz, Julia; Torralba, Álvaro; Hoffmann, Jörg

Construction-Planning Models in Minecraft Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Hierarchical Planning at ICAPS 2019, pp. 1-5, 2019.

Minecraft is a videogame that offers many interesting challenges for AI systems. In this paper, we focus in construction scenarios where an agent must build a complex structure made of individual blocks. As higher-level objects are formed of lower-level objects, the construction can naturally be modelled as a hierarchical task network.

We model a house-construction scenario in classical and HTN planning and compare the advantages and disadvantages of both kinds of models.

@inproceedings{Wichlacz2019,
title = {Construction-Planning Models in Minecraft},
author = {Julia Wichlacz and {\'A}lvaro Torralba and J{\"o}rg Hoffmann},
url = {http://fai.cs.uni-saarland.de/torralba/papers/whtn19.pdf},
year = {2019},
date = {2019},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Hierarchical Planning at ICAPS 2019},
pages = {1-5},
abstract = {Minecraft is a videogame that offers many interesting challenges for AI systems. In this paper, we focus in construction scenarios where an agent must build a complex structure made of individual blocks. As higher-level objects are formed of lower-level objects, the construction can naturally be modelled as a hierarchical task network. We model a house-construction scenario in classical and HTN planning and compare the advantages and disadvantages of both kinds of models.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Köhn, Arne; Koller, Alexander

Talking about what is not there: Generating indefinite referring expressions in Minecraft Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Natural Language Generation, Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 1-10, Tokyo, Japan, 2019.

When generating technical instructions, it is often necessary to describe an object that does not exist yet. For example, an NLG system which explains how to build a house needs to generate sentences like “build a wall of height five to your left” and “now build a wall on the other side.”

Generating (indefinite) referring expressions to objects that do not exist yet is fundamentally different from generating the usual definite referring expressions, because the new object must be distinguished from an infinite set of possible alternatives. We formalize this problem and present an algorithm for generating such expressions, in the context of generating building instructions within the Minecraft video game.

@inproceedings{Köhn2019,
title = {Talking about what is not there: Generating indefinite referring expressions in Minecraft},
author = {Arne K{\"o}hn and Alexander Koller},
url = {https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W19-8601},
doi = {https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/W19-8601},
year = {2019},
date = {2019},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Natural Language Generation},
pages = {1-10},
publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
address = {Tokyo, Japan},
abstract = {When generating technical instructions, it is often necessary to describe an object that does not exist yet. For example, an NLG system which explains how to build a house needs to generate sentences like “build a wall of height five to your left” and “now build a wall on the other side.” Generating (indefinite) referring expressions to objects that do not exist yet is fundamentally different from generating the usual definite referring expressions, because the new object must be distinguished from an infinite set of possible alternatives. We formalize this problem and present an algorithm for generating such expressions, in the context of generating building instructions within the Minecraft video game.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Engonopoulos, Nikos; Teichmann, Christoph; Koller, Alexander

Discovering user groups for natural language generation Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 19th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue, 2018.

@inproceedings{Engonopoulos2018discovering,
title = {Discovering user groups for natural language generation},
author = {Nikos Engonopoulos and Christoph Teichmann and Alexander Koller},
year = {2018},
date = {2018},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th Annual SIGdial Meeting on Discourse and Dialogue},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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