Publications

Macher, Nicole; Abdullah, Badr M.; Brouwer, Harm; Klakow, Dietrich

Do we read what we hear? Modeling orthographic influences on spoken word recognition Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop, Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 16-22, Online, 2021.

Theories and models of spoken word recognition aim to explain the process of accessing lexical knowledge given an acoustic realization of a word form. There is consensus that phonological and semantic information is crucial for this process. However, there is accumulating evidence that orthographic information could also have an impact on auditory word recognition. This paper presents two models of spoken word recognition that instantiate different hypotheses regarding the influence of orthography on this process. We show that these models reproduce human-like behavior in different ways and provide testable hypotheses for future research on the source of orthographic effects in spoken word recognition.

@inproceedings{macher-etal-2021-read,
title = {Do we read what we hear? Modeling orthographic influences on spoken word recognition},
author = {Nicole Macher and Badr M. Abdullah and Harm Brouwer and Dietrich Klakow},
url = {https://aclanthology.org/2021.eacl-srw.3},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop},
pages = {16-22},
publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
address = {Online},
abstract = {Theories and models of spoken word recognition aim to explain the process of accessing lexical knowledge given an acoustic realization of a word form. There is consensus that phonological and semantic information is crucial for this process. However, there is accumulating evidence that orthographic information could also have an impact on auditory word recognition. This paper presents two models of spoken word recognition that instantiate different hypotheses regarding the influence of orthography on this process. We show that these models reproduce human-like behavior in different ways and provide testable hypotheses for future research on the source of orthographic effects in spoken word recognition.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Projects:   A1 C4

Chingacham, Anupama; Demberg, Vera; Klakow, Dietrich

Exploring the Potential of Lexical Paraphrases for Mitigating Noise-Induced Comprehension Errors Inproceedings Forthcoming

Proceedings of Interspeech 2021, 2021.

@inproceedings{Chingacham2021,
title = {Exploring the Potential of Lexical Paraphrases for Mitigating Noise-Induced Comprehension Errors},
author = {Anupama Chingacham and Vera Demberg and Dietrich Klakow},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Proceedings of Interspeech 2021},
pubstate = {forthcoming},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A4

Voigtmann, Sophia

Informational aspects of the extraposition of relative clauses Inproceedings Forthcoming

Coniglio, Marco; de Bastiani, Chiara; Catasso, Nicholas (Ed.): Language Change at the Interfaces, Benjamins, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2021.

@inproceedings{voigtmanninprint,
title = {Informational aspects of the extraposition of relative clauses},
author = {Sophia Voigtmann},
editor = {Marco Coniglio and Chiara de Bastiani and Nicholas Catasso},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Language Change at the Interfaces},
publisher = {Benjamins},
address = {Amsterdam, Netherlands},
pubstate = {forthcoming},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   C6

Information density as a factor for syntactic variation in Early New High German Inproceedings Forthcoming

Proceedings of Linguistic Evidence 2020, Tübingen, Germany, 2021.

@inproceedings{voigtmannspeyerinprint,
title = {Information density as a factor for syntactic variation in Early New High German},
author = {},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Proceedings of Linguistic Evidence 2020},
address = {T{\"u}bingen, Germany},
pubstate = {forthcoming},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   C6

Speyer, Augustin; Voigtmann, Sophia

Informationelle Bedingungen für die Selbständigkeit kausaler Satzaussagen. Eine diachrone Sichtweise Inproceedings Forthcoming

Finkbeiner, Rita; Külpmann, Robert (Ed.): Selbständigkeit von Satzaussagen und Satzwertigkeit von Äußerungen, Benjamins, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2021.

@inproceedings{speyervoigtmanninprintb,
title = {Informationelle Bedingungen f{\"u}r die Selbst{\"a}ndigkeit kausaler Satzaussagen. Eine diachrone Sichtweise},
author = {Augustin Speyer and Sophia Voigtmann},
editor = {Rita Finkbeiner and Robert K{\"u}lpmann},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Selbst{\"a}ndigkeit von Satzaussagen und Satzwertigkeit von {\"A}u{\ss}erungen},
publisher = {Benjamins},
address = {Amsterdam, Netherlands},
pubstate = {forthcoming},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   C6

Speyer, Augustin; Voigtmann, Sophia

Factors for the integration of causal clauses in the history of German Inproceedings Forthcoming

Jedrzejowski, Lukasz; Fleczoreck, Constanze (Ed.): On the Variation of Causal Clauses, Buske, Hamburg, Germany, 2021.

@inproceedings{speyervoigtmanninprinta,
title = {Factors for the integration of causal clauses in the history of German},
author = {Augustin Speyer and Sophia Voigtmann},
editor = {Lukasz Jedrzejowski and Constanze Fleczoreck},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {On the Variation of Causal Clauses},
publisher = {Buske},
address = {Hamburg, Germany},
pubstate = {forthcoming},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   C6

Sikos, Les; Venhuizen, Noortje; Drenhaus, Heiner; Crocker, Matthew W.

Speak before you listen: Pragmatic reasoning in multi-trial language games Inproceedings Forthcoming

Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 43, 2021.

@inproceedings{sikos2021speak,
title = {Speak before you listen: Pragmatic reasoning in multi-trial language games},
author = {Les Sikos and Noortje Venhuizen and Heiner Drenhaus and Matthew W. Crocker},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society},
pubstate = {forthcoming},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   C3

Venhuizen, Noortje; Hendriks, Petra; Crocker, Matthew W.; Brouwer, Harm

Distributional formal semantics Journal Article

Information and Computation, pp. 104763, 2021, ISSN 0890-5401.

Natural language semantics has recently sought to combine the complementary strengths of formal and distributional approaches to meaning. However, given the fundamentally different ‘representational currency’ underlying these approaches—models of the world versus linguistic co-occurrence—their unification has proven extremely difficult. Here, we define Distributional Formal Semantics, which integrates distributionality into a formal semantic system on the level of formal models. This approach offers probabilistic, distributed meaning representations that are inherently compositional, and that naturally capture fundamental semantic notions such as quantification and entailment. Furthermore, we show how the probabilistic nature of these representations allows for probabilistic inference, and how the information-theoretic notion of “information” (measured in Entropy and Surprisal) naturally follows from it. Finally, we illustrate how meaning representations can be derived incrementally from linguistic input using a recurrent neural network model, and how the resultant incremental semantic construction procedure intuitively captures key semantic phenomena, including negation, presupposition, and anaphoricity.

@article{venhuizen2021distributional,
title = {Distributional formal semantics},
author = {Noortje Venhuizen and Petra Hendriks and Matthew W. Crocker and Harm Brouwer},
url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S089054012100078X},
doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ic.2021.104763},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
journal = {Information and Computation},
pages = {104763},
abstract = {Natural language semantics has recently sought to combine the complementary strengths of formal and distributional approaches to meaning. However, given the fundamentally different ‘representational currency’ underlying these approaches—models of the world versus linguistic co-occurrence—their unification has proven extremely difficult. Here, we define Distributional Formal Semantics, which integrates distributionality into a formal semantic system on the level of formal models. This approach offers probabilistic, distributed meaning representations that are inherently compositional, and that naturally capture fundamental semantic notions such as quantification and entailment. Furthermore, we show how the probabilistic nature of these representations allows for probabilistic inference, and how the information-theoretic notion of “information” (measured in Entropy and Surprisal) naturally follows from it. Finally, we illustrate how meaning representations can be derived incrementally from linguistic input using a recurrent neural network model, and how the resultant incremental semantic construction procedure intuitively captures key semantic phenomena, including negation, presupposition, and anaphoricity.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {article}
}

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Projects:   A1 C3

Aurnhammer, Christoph; Delogu, Francesca; Brouwer, Harm; Crocker, Matthew W.

Does the N400, or rather the P600, index surprisal? Miscellaneous

Psycholinguistics in Flanders (PiF) 2021, TU Kaiserslautern - Book of Abstracts, 2021.

@miscellaneous{Aurnhammer2021PIF,
title = {Does the N400, or rather the P600, index surprisal?},
author = {Christoph Aurnhammer and Francesca Delogu and Harm Brouwer and Matthew W. Crocker},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Psycholinguistics in Flanders (PiF) 2021, TU Kaiserslautern - Book of Abstracts},
pubstate = {published},
type = {miscellaneous}
}

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Project:   A1

Aurnhammer, Christoph; Delogu, Francesca; Brouwer, Harm; Crocker, Matthew W.

Retrieval (N400) and Integration (P600) in Expectation-based Comprehension Miscellaneous Forthcoming

Architectures and Mechanisms in Language Science (AMLaP) 2021, Université de Paris - Book of Abstracts, 2021.

@miscellaneous{Aurnhammer2021AMLaP,
title = {Retrieval (N400) and Integration (P600) in Expectation-based Comprehension},
author = {Christoph Aurnhammer and Francesca Delogu and Harm Brouwer and Matthew W. Crocker},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Architectures and Mechanisms in Language Science (AMLaP) 2021, Universit{\'e} de Paris - Book of Abstracts},
note = {Abstact},
pubstate = {forthcoming},
type = {miscellaneous}
}

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Project:   A1

Ortmann, Katrin

Chunking Historical German Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa), Linköping University Electronic Press, Sweden, pp. 190-199, Reykjavik, Iceland (Online), 2021.

Quantitative studies of historical syntax require large amounts of syntactically annotated data, which are rarely available. The application of NLP methods could reduce manual annotation effort, provided that they achieve sufficient levels of accuracy. The present study investigates the automatic identification of chunks in historical German texts. Because no training data exists for this task, chunks are extracted from modern and historical constituency treebanks and used to train a CRF-based neural sequence labeling tool. The evaluation shows that the neural chunker outperforms an unlexicalized baseline and achieves overall F-scores between 90% and 94% for different historical data sets when POS tags are used as feature. The conducted experiments demonstrate the usefulness of including historical training data while also highlighting the importance of reducing boundary errors to improve annotation precision.

@inproceedings{Ortmann2021,
title = {Chunking Historical German},
author = {Katrin Ortmann},
url = {https://aclanthology.org/2021.nodalida-main.19},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa)},
pages = {190-199},
publisher = {Link{\"o}ping University Electronic Press, Sweden},
address = {Reykjavik, Iceland (Online)},
abstract = {Quantitative studies of historical syntax require large amounts of syntactically annotated data, which are rarely available. The application of NLP methods could reduce manual annotation effort, provided that they achieve sufficient levels of accuracy. The present study investigates the automatic identification of chunks in historical German texts. Because no training data exists for this task, chunks are extracted from modern and historical constituency treebanks and used to train a CRF-based neural sequence labeling tool. The evaluation shows that the neural chunker outperforms an unlexicalized baseline and achieves overall F-scores between 90% and 94% for different historical data sets when POS tags are used as feature. The conducted experiments demonstrate the usefulness of including historical training data while also highlighting the importance of reducing boundary errors to improve annotation precision.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   C6

Muhlack, Beeke; Elmers, Mikey; Drenhaus, Heiner; van Os, Marjolein; Werner, Raphael; Ryzhova, Margarita; Möbius, Bernd

Revisiting recall effects of filler particles in German and English Inproceedings

Proceedings of Interspeech 2021, Interspeech, Brno, Czechia, 2021.

This paper reports on two experiments that partially replicate an experiment by Fraundorf and Watson (2011, J Mem. Lang.) on the recall effect of filler particles. Their subjects listened to three passages of a story, either with or without filler particles, which they had to retell afterwards. They analysed the subject‘ retelling in terms of whether important plot points were remem- bered or not. For their English data, they found that filler parti- cles facilitate the recall of the plot points significantly compared to stories that did not include filler particles. As this seems to be a convincing experimental design, we aimed at evaluating this method as a web-based experiment which may, if found to be suitable, easily be applied to other languages. Furthermore, we investigated whether their results are found in German as well (Experiment 1), and evaluated whether filler duration has an ef- fect on recall performance (Experiment 2). Our results could not replicate the findings of the original study: in fact, the op- posite effect was found for German. In Experiment 1, participants performed better on recall in the fluent condition, while no significant results were found for English in Experiment 2.

@inproceedings{Muhlack2021,
title = {Revisiting recall effects of filler particles in German and English},
author = {Beeke Muhlack and Mikey Elmers and Heiner Drenhaus and Marjolein van Os and Raphael Werner and Margarita Ryzhova and Bernd M{\"o}bius},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Proceedings of Interspeech 2021},
publisher = {Interspeech},
address = {Brno, Czechia},
abstract = {This paper reports on two experiments that partially replicate an experiment by Fraundorf and Watson (2011, J Mem. Lang.) on the recall effect of filler particles. Their subjects listened to three passages of a story, either with or without filler particles, which they had to retell afterwards. They analysed the subject' retelling in terms of whether important plot points were remem- bered or not. For their English data, they found that filler parti- cles facilitate the recall of the plot points significantly compared to stories that did not include filler particles. As this seems to be a convincing experimental design, we aimed at evaluating this method as a web-based experiment which may, if found to be suitable, easily be applied to other languages. Furthermore, we investigated whether their results are found in German as well (Experiment 1), and evaluated whether filler duration has an ef- fect on recall performance (Experiment 2). Our results could not replicate the findings of the original study: in fact, the op- posite effect was found for German. In Experiment 1, participants performed better on recall in the fluent condition, while no significant results were found for English in Experiment 2.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   C3

Höller, Daniel; Behnke, Gregor

Loop Detection in the PANDA Planning System Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS), 31, AAAI Press, pp. 168-173, 2021.

The International Planning Competition (IPC) in 2020 wasthe first one for a long time to host tracks on Hierarchical
Task Network (HTN) planning. HYPERTENSION, the winner of the tack on totally-ordered problems, comes with an interesting technique: it stores parts of the decomposition path in the state to mark expanded tasks and forces its depth first
search to leave recursive structures in the hierarchy. This can be seen as a form of loop detection (LD) – a technique that is
not very common in HTN planning. This might be due to the spirit of encoding enough advice in the model to find plans
(so that loop detection is simply not necessary), or because it becomes a computationally hard task in the general (i.e.
partially-ordered) setting. We integrated several approximate and exact techniques for LD into the progression search of the
HTN planner PANDA. We test our techniques on the benchmark set of the IPC 2020. Both in the partial ordered and total
ordered track, PANDA with LD performs better than the respective winner of the competition.

@inproceedings{hoeller-behnke-21-LD,
title = {Loop Detection in the PANDA Planning System},
author = {Daniel H{\"o}ller and Gregor Behnke},
url = {https://ojs.aaai.org/index.php/ICAPS/article/view/15959},
year = {2021},
date = {2021-07-21},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS)},
pages = {168-173},
publisher = {AAAI Press},
abstract = {The International Planning Competition (IPC) in 2020 wasthe first one for a long time to host tracks on Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) planning. HYPERTENSION, the winner of the tack on totally-ordered problems, comes with an interesting technique: it stores parts of the decomposition path in the state to mark expanded tasks and forces its depth first search to leave recursive structures in the hierarchy. This can be seen as a form of loop detection (LD) – a technique that is not very common in HTN planning. This might be due to the spirit of encoding enough advice in the model to find plans (so that loop detection is simply not necessary), or because it becomes a computationally hard task in the general (i.e. partially-ordered) setting. We integrated several approximate and exact techniques for LD into the progression search of the HTN planner PANDA. We test our techniques on the benchmark set of the IPC 2020. Both in the partial ordered and total ordered track, PANDA with LD performs better than the respective winner of the competition.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Höller, Daniel

Translating Totally Ordered HTN Planning Problems to Classical Planning Problems Using Regular Approximation of Context-Free Languages Inproceedings

Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS), 31, AAAI Press, pp. 159-167, 2021.

There have been several approaches to use techniques from classical planning in HTN planning. While a direct translation is in general not possible due to the different expressiveness, there have been translations of bounded HTN problems and approaches to use classical heuristics in HTN search procedures. In this paper, we introduce a different approach. We exploit methods from the field of Computational Linguistics introduced to approximate Context-Free Languages by Finite Automata. We use them to approximate the decomposition structure of Totally Ordered (TO) HTN planning problems by classical problems. The resulting problem can then be solved using standard classical planning systems. A subset of TOHTN problems can be translated exactly, i.e., without changing the set of solutions. For problems where an approximation is necessary, we use an overapproximation, i.e., the set of solutions to the classical problem is a superset of that of the HTN problem. We then use plan verification to check whether a solution is valid and thus obtain a sound and complete overall approach. The resulting system outperforms the state of the art on the IPC 2020 benchmark set in terms of coverage.

@inproceedings{hoeller-21-toad,
title = {Translating Totally Ordered HTN Planning Problems to Classical Planning Problems Using Regular Approximation of Context-Free Languages},
author = {Daniel H{\"o}ller},
url = {https://ojs.aaai.org/index.php/ICAPS/article/view/15958},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS)},
pages = {159-167},
publisher = {AAAI Press},
abstract = {There have been several approaches to use techniques from classical planning in HTN planning. While a direct translation is in general not possible due to the different expressiveness, there have been translations of bounded HTN problems and approaches to use classical heuristics in HTN search procedures. In this paper, we introduce a different approach. We exploit methods from the field of Computational Linguistics introduced to approximate Context-Free Languages by Finite Automata. We use them to approximate the decomposition structure of Totally Ordered (TO) HTN planning problems by classical problems. The resulting problem can then be solved using standard classical planning systems. A subset of TOHTN problems can be translated exactly, i.e., without changing the set of solutions. For problems where an approximation is necessary, we use an overapproximation, i.e., the set of solutions to the classical problem is a superset of that of the HTN problem. We then use plan verification to check whether a solution is valid and thus obtain a sound and complete overall approach. The resulting system outperforms the state of the art on the IPC 2020 benchmark set in terms of coverage.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Lauer, Pascal; Torralba, Álvaro; Fiser, Daniel; Höller, Daniel; Wichlacz, Julia; Hoffmann, Jörg

Polynomial-Time in PDDL Input Size: Making the Delete Relaxation Feasible for Lifted Planning Inproceedings Forthcoming

Proceedings of the 30th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), IJCAI organization, 2021.

@inproceedings{lauer-21,
title = {Polynomial-Time in PDDL Input Size: Making the Delete Relaxation Feasible for Lifted Planning},
author = {Pascal Lauer and {\'A}lvaro Torralba and Daniel Fiser and Daniel H{\"o}ller and Julia Wichlacz and J{\"o}rg Hoffmann},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 30th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI)},
publisher = {IJCAI organization},
pubstate = {forthcoming},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Wichlacz, Julia; Höller, Daniel; Hoffmann, Jörg

Landmark Heuristics for Lifted Planning – Extended Abstract Inproceedings Forthcoming

Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Combinatorial Search (SoCS), AAAI Press, 2021.

@inproceedings{wichlacz-21,
title = {Landmark Heuristics for Lifted Planning – Extended Abstract},
author = {Julia Wichlacz and Daniel H{\"o}ller and J{\"o}rg Hoffmann},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Combinatorial Search (SoCS)},
publisher = {AAAI Press},
pubstate = {forthcoming},
type = {inproceedings}
}

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Project:   A7

Tröger, Johannes; Lindsay, Hali; Mina, Mario; Linz, Nicklas; Klöppel, Stefan; Kray, Jutta; Peter, Jessica

Patients with amnestic MCI Fail to Adapt Executive Control When Repeatedly Tested with Semantic Verbal Fluency Tasks Journal Article

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-8, 2021.

@article{troger2021patients,
title = {Patients with amnestic MCI Fail to Adapt Executive Control When Repeatedly Tested with Semantic Verbal Fluency Tasks},
author = {Johannes Tr{\"o}ger and Hali Lindsay and Mario Mina and Nicklas Linz and Stefan Kl{\"o}ppel and Jutta Kray and Jessica Peter},
url = {https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society/article/abs/patients-with-amnestic-mci-fail-to-adapt-executive-control-when-repeatedly-tested-with-semantic-verbal-fluency-tasks/E09D9B7801DA02360B056E34E0BD96F7},
year = {2021},
date = {2021-06-30},
journal = {Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society},
pages = {1-8},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
pubstate = {published},
type = {article}
}

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Project:   A5

Brandt, Erika; Möbius, Bernd; Andreeva, Bistra

Dynamic Formant Trajectories in German Read Speech: Impact of Predictability and Prominence Journal Article

Frontiers in Communication, section Language Sciences, 6, pp. 1-15, 2021.

Phonetic structures expand temporally and spectrally when they are difficult to predict from their context. To some extent, effects of predictability are modulated by prosodic structure. So far, studies on the impact of contextual predictability and prosody on phonetic structures have neglected the dynamic nature of the speech signal. This study investigates the impact of predictability and prominence on the dynamic structure of the first and second formants of German vowels. We expect to find differences in the formant movements between vowels standing in different predictability contexts and a modulation of this effect by prominence. First and second formant values are extracted from a large German corpus. Formant trajectories of peripheral vowels are modeled using generalized additive mixed models, which estimate nonlinear regressions between a dependent variable and predictors. Contextual predictability is measured as biphone and triphone surprisal based on a statistical German language model. We test for the effects of the information-theoretic measures surprisal and word frequency, as well as prominence, on formant movement, while controlling for vowel phonemes and duration. Primary lexical stress and vowel phonemes are significant predictors of first and second formant trajectory shape. We replicate previous findings that vowels are more dispersed in stressed syllables than in unstressed syllables. The interaction of stress and surprisal explains formant movement: unstressed vowels show more variability in their formant trajectory shape at different surprisal levels than stressed vowels. This work shows that effects of contextual predictability on fine phonetic detail can be observed not only in pointwise measures but also in dynamic features of phonetic segments.

@article{Brandt/etal:2021,
title = {Dynamic Formant Trajectories in German Read Speech: Impact of Predictability and Prominence},
author = {Erika Brandt and Bernd M{\"o}bius and Bistra Andreeva},
url = {https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcomm.2021.643528/full},
doi = {https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomm.2021.643528},
year = {2021},
date = {2021-06-21},
journal = {Frontiers in Communication, section Language Sciences},
pages = {1-15},
volume = {6},
number = {643528},
abstract = {Phonetic structures expand temporally and spectrally when they are difficult to predict from their context. To some extent, effects of predictability are modulated by prosodic structure. So far, studies on the impact of contextual predictability and prosody on phonetic structures have neglected the dynamic nature of the speech signal. This study investigates the impact of predictability and prominence on the dynamic structure of the first and second formants of German vowels. We expect to find differences in the formant movements between vowels standing in different predictability contexts and a modulation of this effect by prominence. First and second formant values are extracted from a large German corpus. Formant trajectories of peripheral vowels are modeled using generalized additive mixed models, which estimate nonlinear regressions between a dependent variable and predictors. Contextual predictability is measured as biphone and triphone surprisal based on a statistical German language model. We test for the effects of the information-theoretic measures surprisal and word frequency, as well as prominence, on formant movement, while controlling for vowel phonemes and duration. Primary lexical stress and vowel phonemes are significant predictors of first and second formant trajectory shape. We replicate previous findings that vowels are more dispersed in stressed syllables than in unstressed syllables. The interaction of stress and surprisal explains formant movement: unstressed vowels show more variability in their formant trajectory shape at different surprisal levels than stressed vowels. This work shows that effects of contextual predictability on fine phonetic detail can be observed not only in pointwise measures but also in dynamic features of phonetic segments.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {article}
}

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Project:   C1

Sikos, Les; Stein, Katharina; Staudte, Maria

A rose by any other verb: The effect of expectations and word category on processing effort in situated sentence comprehension Journal Article

Frontiers in Psychology, 2021.

Recent work has shown that linguistic and visual contexts jointly modulate linguistic expectancy and, thus, the processing effort for a (more or less) expected critical word (Ankener et al., 2018; Tourtouri et al., 2019; Staudte et al., 2020). According to these findings, uncertainty about the upcoming referent in a visually-situated sentence can be reduced by exploiting the selectional restrictions of a preceding word (e.g., a verb or an adjective), which then reduces processing effort on the critical word (e.g., a referential noun). Interestingly, however, no such modulation was observed in these studies on the expectation-generating word itself. The goal of the current study is to investigate whether the reduction of uncertainty (i.e., the generation of expectations) simply does not modulate processing effort — or whether the particular subject-verb-object (SVO) sentence structure used in these studies (which emphasizes the referential nature of the noun as direct pointer to visually co-present objects) accounts for the observed pattern. To test these questions, the current design reverses the functional roles of nouns and verbs by using sentence constructions in which the noun reduces uncertainty about upcoming verbs, and the verb provides the disambiguating and reference-resolving piece of information. Experiment~1 (a Visual World Paradigm study) and Experiment~2 (a Grammaticality Maze study) both replicate the effect found in Ankener et al. (2018) of visually-situated context on the word which uniquely identifies the referent, albeit on the verb in the current study. Results on the noun, where uncertainty is reduced and expectations are generated in the current design, were mixed and were most likely influenced by design decisions specific to each experiment. These results show that processing of the reference-resolving word — whether it be a noun or a verb — reliably benefits from the prior linguistic and visual information that lead to the generation of concrete expectations.

@article{Sikos2021b,
title = {A rose by any other verb: The effect of expectations and word category on processing effort in situated sentence comprehension},
author = {Les Sikos and Katharina Stein and Maria Staudte},
url = {https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.661898/full},
doi = {https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.661898},
year = {2021},
date = {2021-05-28},
journal = {Frontiers in Psychology},
abstract = {Recent work has shown that linguistic and visual contexts jointly modulate linguistic expectancy and, thus, the processing effort for a (more or less) expected critical word (Ankener et al., 2018; Tourtouri et al., 2019; Staudte et al., 2020). According to these findings, uncertainty about the upcoming referent in a visually-situated sentence can be reduced by exploiting the selectional restrictions of a preceding word (e.g., a verb or an adjective), which then reduces processing effort on the critical word (e.g., a referential noun). Interestingly, however, no such modulation was observed in these studies on the expectation-generating word itself. The goal of the current study is to investigate whether the reduction of uncertainty (i.e., the generation of expectations) simply does not modulate processing effort --- or whether the particular subject-verb-object (SVO) sentence structure used in these studies (which emphasizes the referential nature of the noun as direct pointer to visually co-present objects) accounts for the observed pattern. To test these questions, the current design reverses the functional roles of nouns and verbs by using sentence constructions in which the noun reduces uncertainty about upcoming verbs, and the verb provides the disambiguating and reference-resolving piece of information. Experiment~1 (a Visual World Paradigm study) and Experiment~2 (a Grammaticality Maze study) both replicate the effect found in Ankener et al. (2018) of visually-situated context on the word which uniquely identifies the referent, albeit on the verb in the current study. Results on the noun, where uncertainty is reduced and expectations are generated in the current design, were mixed and were most likely influenced by design decisions specific to each experiment. These results show that processing of the reference-resolving word --- whether it be a noun or a verb --- reliably benefits from the prior linguistic and visual information that lead to the generation of concrete expectations.},
pubstate = {published},
type = {article}
}

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Project:   C3

Menzel, Katrin; Knappen, Jörg; Teich, Elke

Generating linguistically relevant metadata for the Royal Society Corpus Journal Article

Säily, Tanja; Tyrkkö, Jukka (Ed.): Research in Corpus Linguistics, Challenges in combining structured and unstructured data in corpus development (special issue), 9, pp. 1-18, 2021, ISSN 2243-4712.

This paper provides an overview of metadata generation and management for the Royal Society Corpus (RSC), aiming to encourage discussion about the specific challenges in building substantial diachronic corpora intended to be used for linguistic and humanistic analysis. We discuss the motivations and goals of building the corpus, describe its composition and present the types of metadata it contains. Specifically, we tackle two challenges: first, integration of original metadata from the data providers (JSTOR and the Royal Society); second, derivation of additional linguistically relevant metadata regarding text structure and situational context (register).

@article{Menzel2021,
title = {Generating linguistically relevant metadata for the Royal Society Corpus},
author = {Katrin Menzel and J{\"o}rg Knappen and Elke Teich},
editor = {Tanja S{\"a}ily and Jukka Tyrkk{\"o}},
url = {http://ricl.aelinco.es/first-view/158-Article%20Text-969-1-10-20201227.pdf},
doi = {https://doi.org/doi:10.32714/ricl.09.01.02},
year = {2021},
date = {2021},
journal = {Research in Corpus Linguistics, Challenges in combining structured and unstructured data in corpus development (special issue)},
pages = {1-18},
volume = {9},
number = {1},
abstract = {This paper provides an overview of metadata generation and management for the Royal Society Corpus (RSC), aiming to encourage discussion about the specific challenges in building substantial diachronic corpora intended to be used for linguistic and humanistic analysis. We discuss the motivations and goals of building the corpus, describe its composition and present the types of metadata it contains. Specifically, we tackle two challenges: first, integration of original metadata from the data providers (JSTOR and the Royal Society); second, derivation of additional linguistically relevant metadata regarding text structure and situational context (register).},
pubstate = {published},
type = {article}
}

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Project:   B1

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